### 3rd APMO 1991
**Problem 1**
ABC is a triangle. G is the centroid. The line parallel to BC through G meets AB at B' and AC at C'. Let A'' be the midpoint of BC, C'' the intersection of B'C and BG, and B'' the intersection of C'B and CG. Prove that A''B''C'' is similar to ABC.
**Solution**
Let M be the midpoint of AB and N the midpoint of AC. Let A''M meet BG at X. Then X must be the midpoint of A''M (an expansion by a factor 2 center B takes A''M to CA and X to N). Also BX/BN = 1/2 and BG/BN = 2/3, so XG = BX/3. Let the ray CX meet AB at Z. Then ZX = CX/3. (There must be a neat geometric argument for this, but if we take vectors origin B, then **BX** = **BN**/2 = **BA**/4 + **BC**/4, so **BZ** = **BA**/3 and so **XZ** = 1/3 (**BA**/4 - 3**BC**/4) = **CX**/3.) So now triangles BXC and ZXG are similar, so ZG is parallel to BC, so Z is B' and X is C''. But A''X is parallel to AC and 1/4 its length, so A''C'' is parallel to AC and 1/4 its length. Similarly A''B'' is parallel to AB and 1/4 its length. Hence A''B''C'' is similar to ABC.
**Problem 2**
There are 997 points in the plane. Show that they have at least 1991 distinct midpoints. Is it possible to have exactly 1991 midpoints?
**Solution**
Answer: yes. Take the 997 points collinear at coordinates x = 1, 3, ... , 1993. The midpoints are 2, 3, 4, ... , 1992.
Take two points A and B which are the maximum distance apart. Now consider the following midpoints: M, the midpoint of AB, the midpoint of each AX for any other X in the set (not A or B), and the midpoint of each BX. We claim that all these are distinct. Suppose X and Y are two other points (apart from A and B). Clearly the midpoints of AX and AY must be distinct (otherwise X and Y would coincide). Similarly the midpoints of BX and BY must be distinct. Equally, the midpoint of AX cannot be M (or X would coincide with B), nor can the midpoint of BX be M. Suppose, finally, that N is the midpoint of AX and BY. Then AYXB is a parallelogram and either AX or BY must exceed AB, contradicting the maximality of AB. So we have found 1991 distinct midpoints. The example above shows that there can be exactly 1991 midpoints.
**Problem 3**
x_{i} and y_{i} are positive reals with ∑_{1}^{n} x_{i} = ∑_{1}^{n} y_{i}. Show that ∑_{1}^{n} x_{i}^{2}/(x_{i} + y_{i}) ≥ (∑_{1}^{n} x_{i})/2.
**Solution**
We use Cauchy-Schwartz: ∑ (x/√(x+y) )^{2} ∑ (√(x+y) )^{2} ≥ (∑ x )^{2}. So ∑ x^{2}/(x+y) >= (∑ x)^{2}/(∑(x+y) = 1/2 ∑ x.
**Problem 4**
A sequence of values in the range 0, 1, 2, ... , k-1 is defined as follows: a_{1} = 1, a_{n} = a_{n-1} + n (mod k). For which k does the sequence assume all k possible values?
**Solution**
Let f(n) = n(n+1)/2, so a_{n} = f(n) mod k. If k is odd, then f(n+k) = f(n) mod k, so the sequence can only assume all possible values if a_{1}, ... , a_{k} are all distinct. But f(k-n) = f(n) mod k, so there are at most (k+1)/2 distinct values. Thus k odd does not work.
If k is even, then f(n+2k) = f(n) mod k, so we need only look at the first 2k values. But f((2k-1-n) = f(n) mod k and f(2k-1) = 0 mod k, so the sequence assumes all values iff a_{1}, a_{2}, ... , a_{k-1} assume all the values 1, 2, ... , k-1.
Checking the first few, we find k = 2, 4, 8, 16 work and k = 6, 10, 12, 14 do not. So this suggests that k must be a power of 2. Suppose k is a power of 2. If f(r) = f(s) mod k for some 0 < r, s < k, then (r - s)(r + s + 1) = 0 mod k. But each factor is < k, so neither can be divisible by k. Hence both must be even. But that is impossible (because their sum is 2r+1 which is odd), so each of f(1), f(2), ... , f(k-1) must be distinct residues mod k. Obviously none can be 0 mod k (since 2k cannot divide r(r+1) for 0 < r < k and so k cannot divide f(r) ). Thus they must include all the residues 1, 2, ... k-1. So k a power of 2 does work.
Now suppose h divides k and k works. If f(n) = a mod k, then f(n) = a mod h, so h must also work. Since odd numbers do not work, that implies that k cannot have any odd factors. So if k works it must be a power of 2.
**Problem 5**
Circles C and C' both touch the line AB at B. Show how to construct all possible circles which touch C and C' and pass through A.
**Solution**
Take a common tangent touching C' at Q' and C at Q. Let the line from Q to A meet C again at P. Let the line from Q' to A meet C' again at P'. Let the C have center O and C' have center O'. Let the lines OP and O'P' meet at X. Take X as the center of the required circle. There are two common tangents, so this gives two circles, one enclosing C and C' and one not.
To see that this construction works, invert wrt the circle on center A through B. C and C' go to themselves under the inversion. The common tangent goes to a circle through A touching C and C'. Hence the point at which it touches C must be P and the point at which it touches C' must be P'.
### 4th APMO 1992
### Problem 1
A triangle has sides a, b, c. Construct another triangle sides (-a + b + c)/2, (a - b + c)/2, (a + b - c)/2. For which triangles can this process be repeated arbitrarily many times?
**Solution**
Answer: equilateral.
We may ignore the factor 1/2, since clearly a triangle with sides x, y, z can be constructed iff a triangle with sides 2x, 2y, 2z can be constructed.
The advantage of considering the process as generating (-a + b + c), (a - b + c), (a + b - c) from a, b, c is that the sum of the sides remains unchanged at a + b + c, so we can focus on just one of the three sides. Thus we are looking at the sequence a, (a + b + c) - 2a, a + b + c - 2(-a + b + c), ... . Let d = 2a - b - c. We show that the process generates the sequence a, a - d, a + d, a - 3d, a + 5d, a - 11d, a + 21d, ... . Let the nth term be a + (-1)^{n}a_{n}d. We claim that a_{n+1} = 2a_{n} + (-1)_{n}. This is an easy induction, for we have a + (-1)^{n+1}a_{n+1}d = a + b + c - 2(a + (-1)^{n}a_{n}d) and hence (-1)^{n+1}a_{n+1}d = -d - 2(-1)^{n}a_{n}d, and hence a_{n+1} = 2a_{n} + (-1)^{n}. But this shows that a_{n} is unbounded. Hence if d is non-zero then the process ultimately generates a negative number. Thus a necessary condition for the process to generate triangles indefinitely is that 2a = b + c. Similarly, 2b = c + a is a necessary condition. But these two equations imply (subtracting) a = b and hence a = c. So a necessary condition is that the triangle is equilateral. But this is obviously also sufficient.
**Problem 2**
Given a circle C centre O. A circle C' has centre X inside C and touches C at A. Another circle has centre Y inside C and touches C at B and touches C' at Z. Prove that the lines XB, YA and OZ are concurrent.
**Solution**
We need Ceva's theorem, which states that given points D, E, F on the lines BC, CA, AB, the lines AD, BE, CF are concurrent iff (BD/DC) (CE/EA) (AF/FB) = 1 (where we pay attention to the signs of BD etc, so that BD is negative if D lies on the opposite side of B to C). Here we look at the triangle OXY, and the points A on OX, B on OY and Z on XY (it is obvious that Z does lie on XY). We need to consider (OA/AX) (XZ/ZY) (YB/BO). AX and BY are negative and the other distances positive, so the sign is plus. Also OA = OB, AX = XZ, and ZY = YB (ignoring signs), so the expression is 1. Hence AY, XB and OZ are concurrent as required.
**Problem 3**
Given three positive integers a, b, c, we can derive 8 numbers using one addition and one multiplication and using each number just once: a+b+c, a+bc, b+ac, c+ab, (a+b)c, (b+c)a, (c+a)b, abc. Show that if a, b, c are distinct positive integers such that n/2 < a, b, c, <= n, then the 8 derived numbers are all different. Show that if p is prime and n ≥ p^{2}, then there are just d(p-1) ways of choosing two distinct numbers b, c from {p+1, p+2, ... , n} so that the 8 numbers derived from p, b, c are *not* all distinct, where d(p-1) is the number of positive divisors of p-1.
**Solution**
If 1 < a < b < c, we have a + b + c < ab + c < b + ac < a + bc and (b+c)a < (a+c)b < (a+b)c < abc. We also have b + ac < (a+c)b. So we just have to consider whether a + bc = (b+c)a. But if a > c/2, which is certainly the case if n/2 < a, b, c ≤ n, then a(b + c - 1) > c/2 (b + b) = bc, so a + bc < a(b + c) and all 8 numbers are different.
The numbers are not all distinct iff p + bc = (b + c)p. Put b = p + d. Then c = p(p-1)/d + p. Now we are assuming that b < c, so p + d < p(p-1)/d + p, hence d^{2} < p(p-1), so d < p. But p is prime so d cannot divide p, so it must divide p-1. So we get exactly d(p-1) solutions provided that all the c ≤ n. The largest c is that corresponding to d = 1 and is p(p-1) + p = p^{2} ≤ n.
**Problem 4**
Find all possible pairs of positive integers (m, n) so that if you draw n lines which intersect in n(n-1)/2 distinct points and m parallel lines which meet the n lines in a further mn points (distinct from each other and from the first n(n-1)/2) points, then you form exactly 1992 regions.
**Solution**
Answer: (1, 995), (10, 176), (21, 80).
n lines in general position divide the plane into n(n+1)/2 + 1 regions and each of the m parallel lines adds a further n+1 regions. So we require n(n+1)/2 + 1 + m(n+1) = 1992 or (n+1)(2m+n) = 3982 = 2·11·181. So n+1 must divide 3982, also (n+1)n < 3982, so n ≤ 62. We are also told that n is positive Thus n = 0 is disallowed. The remaining possibilities are n+1 = 2, 11, 2·11. These give the three solutions shown above.
**Problem 5**
a_{1}, a_{2}, a_{3}, ... a_{n} is a sequence of non-zero integers such that the sum of any 7 consecutive terms is positive and the sum of any 11 consecutive terms is negative. What is the largest possible value for n?
**Solution**
Answer: 16.
We cannot have 17 terms, because then:
a_{1} + a_{2} + ... + a_{11} < 0
a_{2} + a_{3} + ... + a_{12} < 0
a_{3} + a_{4} + ... + a_{13} < 0
...
a_{7} + a_{8} + ... + a_{17} < 0
So if we add the inequalities we get that an expression is negative. But notice that each column is positive. Contradiction.
On the other hand, a valid sequence of 16 terms is: -5, -5, 13, -5, -5, -5, 13, -5, -5, 13, -5, -5, -5, 13, -5, -5. Any run of 7 terms has two 13s and five -5s, so sums to 1. Any run of 11 terms has three 13s and eight -5s, so sums to -1.
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